TNT2: Web Video for Cheap

Colleen Luther
Web Producer, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

The audio for this podcast can be downloaded at


Female:  Hi everyone.  Like you said, I produce multimedia at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, New York.  I'm here today to talk to you about producing web video in particular for cheap so I'll just kind of dive right in.  Can anyone here raise your hand if your job title is videographer, web editor?  Good.  Video editor, photographer, nice.  Sound engineer, gaffer, set designer, makeup artist, close captioner, screenwriter.

Yes, my title is not any of those things either.  I am a web producer which is a kind of catchall term for anything to do with the web.  And with the advent of web video, we suddenly find ourselves, producers like me find ourselves responsible for all those job titles that I just mentioned.  You can see that's why video production firms charge tens of thousands of dollars for their work.  There's really no way around it.


So how can we as the producers, the content makers, the curators even get our hands on web video for cheap for less than tens of thousands of dollars?  It almost doesn't seem possible, but it is.

Has anyone's budget gone up the past few years?  No, ours neither.  But we have actually managed to start and invest in our video and audio production and it has really paid off for us, so I'm here to talk to you about how we did that and what you can do and see where you're at.

Here's the plan for today.  So it's all about the audience, right?  That's basically the start of any good communications project.  That's where we're going to start, with the types of video projects and who we want to serve.  Then we're going to move on to our kind of 101s with the areas of broadcasting, video cameras, sound recording, lighting and video software.  I'm not here just to say use a $200 Flip cam, all will be well.  In some cases, yes, that will be the solution but in others, at some point you're going to want to move on.


That said, some of these might seem a little excessive to you, and again for some projects they are.  But they're really not as inaccessible as you might think so we're going to just kind of go through those.  But we will talk about it in the context of budget of course, so that's why you have cost sheets as well.  Does everyone have their handouts, their 101 handouts in the equipment cost sheet handouts?  We're missing some back here.  We kind of ran out of handouts.  So you could share that'd be great.  It'll be available online afterwards.


Once we're done talking about those, we'll go through some other ways to save money and at the end, we'll have time for some extra questions and discussion.  I say extra questions because I think this type of presentation pretty much lends itself to jumping in as we go along, so please feel free to do that.

Let's start with the types of video projects.  Who's your audience?  What kind of video do you already do and what kinds do you want to do?  Anyone?  I'm sorry, prospective students?  It's important.  I'm a bad speller, so yes.  Anyone else?  Community, nice.  Parents, yes.


I'll tell you about some of the video projects that we do at RPI that serve these audiences.  We do a lot of kind of short 3-minute features for the web and we find that those actually serve many of these audiences.  We also do... that we show at events, and that's usually a pretty cool way to get everyone involved, too.  We like to do a lot of B-roll recorded interviews that we send out with press releases.  News outlets love that because they'll just take it and use it for themselves.

We do biweekly podcasts that kind of sum up the news and we actually aim that at our alumni and our parents who don’t want the press releases everyday.  They don’t need to hear about it everyday but they want something that kind of sums it up nicely every two weeks.  It works for them.  There's also the distance learning and education aspect of things.  Some of it, we actually kind of have to outsource.  We have some events streaming.  We stream our commencement and our sports games.  We don’t do that in our office.  I may have the vaguely titled name of a web producer but no one expects me to get up in a helicopter and start taking aerial shots, so we actually hire someone for that that we have for our fancy commercials that we show to the trustees.


It's important to realize that a lot of secondary uses kind of come out of the videos.  For example, one of the kind of projects that we have is a video series on undergraduate research.  RPI is a very technical place.  We have many engineers.  So they apply for grants a lot, so these past maybe two weeks ago, a professor came up to me and said, oh, by the way, that undergraduate video that you did for us like two years ago, we used it to apply to a grant to the NSF to show them how we interact with the students, how their grant money is impacting the undergraduate community which sometimes gets left out a lot in research.  So he's like they loved it, they thought it was great.  He's like it was a totally different project but they didn’t care.  They gave us money anyway, so that worked.


Department chairs also like to use the videos if you produce something that pertains to them.  They like to present it to their peers.  Advancement officers there, they love showing us off really.  It's great.  As do admissions officers because parents and kids like this stuff.  So let's just kind of keep this all in mind as we go forward to think about it.

I'm going to start with some broadcasting 101.  Only because you record in certain settings, you edit in certain settings and you can press and export in certain settings, you'll really save your self a lot of grief if you keep all those settings the same and kind of know what you're looking for when you go in.  Otherwise, I've spent two days trying to figure this stuff out at the end of the process.


You can record.  Well, video is most kind common to two different categories; high def and standard definition.  These are probably very familiar to you already if you watch or TV or movies.  The high definition scans more than standard definition and that's why it looks better, so the higher number the better it is.  But the other part of the scan is that little i and p, and the i stands for interlaced, the p stands for progressive.  Interlaced was created actually for cathode ray television sets and it kind of uses the kind of glow that you get from it and your brain to kind fill in those blanks because it scans every line.  What we're going to try and want for on the web and computers is basically your progressive scan because that does every line and that's just kind of how monitors are going nowadays.

That said, don’t feel like you need to go up to 1080p.  That's super high.  To give you some context, actually for broadcasting standards, Fox and ABC use 720p to broadcast so it's pretty good stuff, so 720p is actually very comparable to 1080i so they're about the same in terms of quality there.


But like I said, this stuff matters more in television broadcasting which we're not really worried about because we're in the web and we can kind of make the web broadcast whatever we want.  YouTube, they recommend 702p.  Go up to 1080 which is crazy but it does.  But I also mentioned it because you just might want to keep this in mind if you are shooting for video... because you really don’t know where these secondary uses are going to lead.  So if the news calls you up and says, hey, can I have a clip of this, you'd be able to say, here it is, it's broadcast quality even if you don’t need it that way for your web.  So there's that.

The frame size is something you should also consider.  Just because something is widescreen doesn't mean it's high def.  Actually in Europe, you actually have a lot of televisions that are at that 4:3 ratio there and they're high definition anyway.  And conversely, if you have a widescreen, it doesn't mean it's high definition.  And where the cost comes in, some of the cheaper cameras will actually show you nice pictures of the widescreen and you kind of assume it's high definition but it's not.  So that's something to definitely kind to look out for.


I'm kind of going through this a little quickly because you have the sheets in front of you and you can read, so all right.

Before we move on to the video camera 101, I just want to show you some examples of different video cameras, different sources you can use.  The first is actually an example that we're actually blogging, video blogging this conference right here so I bring that up.  We're using our cell phones to shoot video through a program called Quick, an application called Quick, and it's all kind of popping up.  Some of you, if you were dancing last night, you may be on that just so you know.

So let's just look at one of these, and just pay attention to the quality, pay attention to what we're

Audience:  [10:58 Unintelligible]


Female:  Yes, it is not playing that well.  So that tells you something right there.  So maybe if the quality isn't the best, it still doesn't mean that cell phones are a bad in all situations.  RPI actually has a project coming up next semester called Let's Eat.  And what we're going to do is let our students, staff and faculty just kind of take short videos.  We're not going to use this program for obvious reasons, but.  And kind of show their dining experiences on and around campus.

If you were in the presentation before, we talked about the e-expectation survey.  There's actually a whole presentation on that tomorrow, I believe.  So we know the research.  We know that students like videos.  Prospective students like videos.  Yes, they like the ones that the institution produces but they especially like things produced by their peers and they don’t really care how shiny it is as long as they have access to that content.  So they just want it to be real so it doesn't need to be polished.


The next example I wanted to show you was the Flip cam.  The particular example I'm going to show you is actually an elevator speech of one of our physicists speaking and it does go on for about two minutes but I clipped it for you.  This is unedited.  I didn’t adjust the sound.  I didn't adjust the picture so this is kind of the raw footage of what a Flip cam can do.  I don't know where my sound is.  Can anyone help me with the sound attachment?  Is there anyone here now because that's kind of important?


Okay, we'll try that.  Keep in mind this isn't going to sound as good because it's going through a few channels here but it'll give you some idea.

[Video presentation]


Right now, that is the projector.  It's not showing that way on my screen so the projector is kind of stretching everything out, unfortunately.  But you can see the example of the Flip cam.  It does record in HD.  It is widescreen so that's good.  Honestly, it doesn't do a bad job at all.  Yes.

This was I think just on a stack of books.  I didn't record this one myself.  Our media people did, but yes, that was just kind of

So actually, yes, that kind of went into the next I'm saying.  The Flip cam is good for a lot of things but it does have some limitations.  We'll talk more about the Flip cam in a minute.  But to talk about video cameras a little more, kind of what goes into making a good video camera.


We'll start with the image sensors.  These are usually measured in megapixels.  They're really not as important as you'd think.  Yes, the more sensors the better, but it's more the resolution that counts with video.  The first example I showed you was a cell phone recording at 480p and the Flip cam example I showed you was 720p, and the cell phone had 5 megapixels and the Flip cam, maybe the Flip cam users can use this, I don’t even how many megapixels they come with.  It doesn't really say.  I've read they come up to like 5.6.

The reason it doesn't so matter so much is you can see there's only, if we estimate high, that 0.6 megapixels was not what made the difference in those two videos.  It was the resolution.  It was the compression.  It was the playback.  So when factoring that, megapixels into your camera decision, it's great for still pictures but as far as video cameras go, it's not all that important.


Let's see, talk a little bit about lenses.  Both of those examples I showed you and all the ones I will show you have an automatic focus.  It can be challenging sometimes especially if you're trying to shoot something with a lot of action going on.  Once I was shooting a soccer player kind of kicking at a ball and the camera just wanted the net.  It just wanted to focus on the net, so sometimes you just have to get creative and just change your camera angle.  The thing is you can get cameras with manual features, among them, the manual focus but they don’t come cheap.  So the photographers in the group, you'll kind of know the advantages of the manual settings.

You can do a lot of neat things with them.  Don’t get me wrong, but as far as camera goes, you're going to be paying a lot more.  My department actually just purchased a camera that has manual features and it cost about $5,000 so it was a significant step up from what we had been using.


Zoom is actually something you do want to pay attention to.  You have two kinds, optical and digital.  The optical is an actual physical change on your camera, and the digital is a fake zoom really; it just kind of crops in and kind of blows up your picture so you do start to lose resolution.  Others come with both.  You could tell that on your kind of point-and-clicks and any video cameras.  They all kind of work the same way.  So just pay attention to how much of that is an optical zoom and how much of that is a digital zoom because it starts to affect your quality.

Power, they all run on batteries.  Everything kind of runs on a battery nowadays, but not all those batteries are replaceable on the fly and they're not all rechargeable either.  Cell phones, for example.  If you're going to use a cell phone then you kind of get into the thing of if you run out of batteries, you have to plug it in.  We had a Flip cam user over here.  What's your battery situation on your Flip cam?  Can you charge it up on the fly or do you need to kind of plug it into the computer?


Audience:  [18:22 Unintelligible]

Female:  So yes, these are definitely things to kind of watch out for.

In terms of media, some things record on digital media and others use tape.  I personally like the digital media because then you can just kind of drag and drop it on to either your recording device or your computer, whatever, and it makes it kind of really easy to handle.  But I have used tape extensively; it gives you a nice quality but then you start getting to additional costs of you need software that can capture it and it takes like a whole afternoon sometimes to get through your tape and finally take off what you need.  These are just kind of things to keep in mind.


So let's grab one of those cost sheets and we can kind of talk about this.  So the Flip cam we saw had the HDTV resolution, 720p, it's digital, and it costs at the most $300.  If you're just starting out, that's actually a really probably good option for you.

The Sony Handycam which we haven't seen an example of yet but we will is also HDTV, it shoots also in SD so you get that option and sometimes that option is good.  This past year, I've worked with the BBC, Reuters, Voice of America; we've done video for all of them, and they all wanted different things.  Voice of America actually wanted SD so they didn't want the HD so that was just kind of a consideration.  The Sony Handycam also uses digital or cassettes so you get more options, but as you can see the price starts to go up.


We also extensively use a Canon GL2 which only does SD.  It doesn't even do HD, but it does give you the widescreen option.  It also uses cassettes to go on and you can see the price goes up even more but that's because of those manual options, so you can see it starts to really kind of push it up.

So there are all kinds of pros and cons, and we could spend all week talking about various cameras and what comes with them and their cost, but we only have 45 minutes.  Are there any questions on cameras before I move on to sound?  Yes?

Audience:  [20:50 Unintelligible]


Female:  Union, and not want to take the video because it's union?  No, we haven't.  Well, we haven't done a lot with like local broadcasting either.  We've done mostly news outlets.  I'm sorry, web outlets.  Like Reuters, they did there on the news.  What happened with the local media is we showed them our B-roll and they came and took their own but that's actually a really good point.  Thank you.  Yes.

Audience:  [21:23 Unintelligible]

Female:  That's great.  Yes, I haven't used those yet, so I kind of left that out.  Wonderful.  That's crazy, it's so high.  But you only get 10 minutes.

Audience:  [21:50 Unintelligible]


Female:  Yes.  Well, especially if your department does a lot of photography as well.  So if you use your SLR for taking pictures and you just want small snippets of video, that's definitely a way to go.  Yes, sure.

Audience:  [22:10 Unintelligible]

Female:  Absolutely.  Yes, you can pay for all those expensive stuff but sometimes you don’t need it, so it's just always good to kind of keep your audience in mind.  What are you doing?  Who are you doing it for?  What will work?

So moving on to sound, our department actually started with audio for little of the reason that my boss and I are both musicians so it made sense to us.  We kind of had some of the equipment hanging out at home.  We could bring in our mics.  We could bring in our mixers and we knew what was going on.  And so we started out with this kind of podcast that came every so often and it kind of grew into a video podcast.  We started with kind of a slide show type thing putting pictures in, and that was a pretty good way to go.


Like nowadays, we have a relationship with NPR because our faculty did something called Academic Minutes so they all record a minute and it ends up on NPR.  We're able to record those right in our office.  NPR likes it because they don’t have to spend the money or the time doing it, and it makes them more likely to call us back up which they do, so that's great exposure for us; it makes them happy, we're happy, and it all works.

So I got kind of stuck trying to come up with an example of how sound matters because you might find yourself in a really weird example like sometimes your sound pukes out on your presentation here.  Once, we were taking some footage of a presentation and we had everything all set up, everything was beautiful, and the speaker comes up and says, you can all hear me, right?  I don’t need this microphone.  I took it off and our sound was gone.  So my boss ended up literally like in the front row, we had to grab a microphone that was in our bag and he's doing one of these, he's like, it was embarrassing.  It was funny but it didn't sound good.


So the point is really that audio matters.  In the end, I decided to give you a more fun example.  This is an example of a video made by us and our student sustainability task force when we introduced single-stream recycling on campus.  So it's really cheesy little fight scene between recyclable materials and the non-recyclable materials, so let's see how this sounds.

[Video presentation]


I'm sorry the video was a little ridiculous but it won us 600 free recycling bins so that was fun.

Just to give you the option, I'm going to show you some of the same scenes without any of the audio touched.

[Video presentation]


So okay, which did you like better?  The second one was kind of funny in its own way, but yes.

Okay, now to kind of bring it to the types of microphones.  In that example, we used a lavalier mic.  So we'll get to that in a minute, but first I just want to talk about how most video cameras, I don't know.  Does the digital SLR come with its own built-in audio?  It does, okay.  That makes sense.  So that's obviously probably your cheapest way to go.

As far as external mics go, I think the Flip cam is coming up with some soon because they're starting to use some proprietary kind of attachments there and they're not built yet but I think they're coming out in December.  So early next year, you'll be able to use an external mic with the Flip cam but I don’t think you can do it yet.  Correct me if I'm wrong.

No, they're making special ones because it's not just a microphone port.  It's going to be for other things, too.  So that's the direction they're going.


The second kind is a lavalier mic.  That's this guy right here.  We actually used that for that video.  I had to capture single stream because I knew I wanted to add some reverb to his voice later to give him a nice kind of super hero presence that he didn't have in real life.  No offence, but.  And the rest of the scene, we actually took the mic and we just kind of clipped it to one of the light switches.  Not the way you're supposed to use it but, I don't know, it works for us because it gave us some kind of external sound and we were able to use later in it.  I don't know.  It wasn't bad.  Plus, they're actually really light and portable and that starts to add up when you're carrying a bunch of lights and cameras and tripods and stuff around.  I don't know.  It's consideration.


As far as the handheld goes, you have two kinds, the dynamic and condenser mics.  That's kind of these guys right here.  The dynamic is the kind that's meant to go on the road so it's actually really rugged, it's water-resistant.  It's not as loud as your condenser mic but it's really good if you kind of want to bring it anywhere.  The condenser mics are made to be used in the studio as such.  Actually, the very high quality, they record at a louder sound but they also generally require phantom power and you usually get that in the form of a mixer or a preamp and you can see on your cost sheet that those aren't cheap.  So it all starts to kind of add up, and condenser mics are more expensive in general anyway.  Also, you start to need things like the quality is so high you end up needing a split screen so you don’t hear like, because that's annoying, right?  Sorry.


Also, when buying a microphone, just be aware of the connectors.  Does anyone play rock band?  Yes, so that's something you actually plug into your XBox or whatever, so you have a mic and it kind of plugs in.  So connectors come in all sorts of different ways.  You have USB, you have your 3-port, you have all sorts of options.  So if you can match it all up in the beginning, you'll probably save yourself a little bit of grief.  They do make adapters but they're not super expensive but it adds up after a while.

I also included a picture of the polar patterns for you just because when you're shopping for microphones, that's one of the first things they like to show.  I wouldn't worry about it too much unless you're super into audio engineering.  I think the people who write the specs just get excited about it so they just like to show it.


As far as levels and software go, we'll get into software a little bit later.  When you're recording your levels, and this happens a lot of times on your built-in microphones, you'll have your loud person and then you'll have your soft talking person and then you'll have your booming person and you kind of want to loosen all that.  You kind of want your levels to be between zero and kind of -6 decibels because that's kind of what sounds good and that's so people don’t have to adjust the sound on the machine every video that they see.  So something to keep in mind.

Are there any questions on sound before we move on to some lighting?  Okay.

Audience:  [30:10 Unintelligible] so who produced that?


Female:  I did.  Yes, I have kind of the weird job of I do everything from the beginning.  I do the script writing all the way through till the end.  I record it, I shoot it, I edit it.  My bosses help me out.  He was the gaffer, so to speak.  That's kind of the electrician on set.  He's plugging in all the lights and everything like that.  Yes, okay.

So moving on to lighting, you basically have your two kinds of lights; you have natural and artificial.  Guess which is cheaper?  Natural light obviously is the cheaper option.  It's also harder to harness correctly but you can do it.  The most simple lighting scheme that we can see very easily with artificial light is the three-point lighting scheme.  I gave you a little diagram of that.  So you basically have your key light which is your main kind of 45 degrees but that gives you kind of creepy shadows over here so you kind of want to fill those in with your fill light.  And then to make the whole thing not so flat, you kind of pop it out with some backlight so that's how that works.


It's really to do with artificial lights.  Buy yourself a set of lights and there you go.  But you can also do it with natural light which is what we did in this video here, and this was actually shot with a Handycam for those of you keeping track, and the other ones were shot with a Canon.  This is the one that actually ended up in Reuters and it kind of went all around the world, so I guess it was okay.

What we did was we actually put him in a room with windows on adjacent walls so that was our fill light, our key light, and that was kind of that.  We didn't have much backlight so we put them on a shiny couch which was the only couch in the room.  Yes, the shininess is kind of an iffy thing.  It can be distracting but a little bit of it is okay I guess.


Usually, when you're working with reflective surfaces, you want to use the board reflectors and those are those things you kind of see people holding up.  They're kind of like the big circle disks and they look like aluminum foil.  They also come in black.  They come in gold metallic.  They come in white.  There all sorts of different options and those are wonderful for lighting because you just kind of use them to balance them any which way you want, and they're pretty cheap.  So I kind of recommend that.

One thing I just wanted to show you also about lighting is when you're working with cameras with the automatic features which are the cheaper cameras, the camera's going to automatically adjust for the light so you can see here that this beam of light that's coming in creates a lot of contrast within the picture.  You can see it in that one, too.  The camera just sucks it all up right here and it makes the rest of the picture really dark and it just doesn't look good.


The thing is you don’t always see this in your viewfinder because I looked in my viewfinder and this looked fine so you really just have to know.  About halfway through, I realized oh no, there's a sunbeam so I zoomed in and then I got a better light.

Are there any questions about any of this hardware before we move on to the software?  Yes?

Audience:  [33:32 Unintelligible]


Female:  I've never done a live feed myself so I honestly can't speak to that.  Has anyone here worked with live feeds?  No.  So sorry, I can try and look that up for you and see what other people.  No, no.  So any other question?  Yes?

Audience:  [34:04 Unintelligible]


Female:  So yes, a webcam is definitely an option.  Let's move on to the software because that's really the goo that hold, you can have all the hardware in the world but if you can't use it then you're not going to end up with a good product.

So you only need one kind of video software and that's your video editing software.  I tend to use the Final Cut Apple products at work.  At home, in our house, we have a Windows system so I use the Adobe products.  So I've used both extensively and I think they're honestly very comparable.  They're really kind of the same.  They do the same things.

I also just really recommend you can use the free stuff that comes with your computer when you buy it.  You can use that stuff to kind of cut and paste and cut your video but your options are pretty limited, so I really recommend learning a piece of more professional software.  If you don’t want to go the entire pro route, consider the express and elements route.  You know how Photoshop has their express portion?  Well, they do the same thing with their video software.  And honestly, for web video, it does give you all the options you need and it's a really much more affordable price.


I'm also personally realistic clear, like I told you, video audio is kind of my thing so I like using the more in-depth audio software.  Audio stuff does come with your general video editing software but it doesn't let you do much more than kind of adjust the sound, so when you have your options such as the really soft talker and then the really loud one, you can adjust the overall but you can't kind of pick and choose, I want to make this person louder or this person softer.

In a situation where my boss was handholding the thing trying to get people's voices, I wouldn't have been able to kind of fix those problems without my audio software.  In that fight scene, I couldn't have done that without the audio software either.


A nice cost saver about that is that they tend to come with a lot of audio beds and a lot of sound effects.  It's all free with the software.  You can use it for whatever you want.  There's a lot of it, too.  There's a ton of it.  It's taken me a few years to kind of get to the point where I have to start buying some of that stuff.  Once you start to use it, you actually start to hear it everywhere.  You hear it on the radio.  You hear it in commercials.  You're like, hey, that's the music I used for this video or whatever.  So that's kind of how that happens.

Another piece of software I use are motion graphics software.  Motion graphics I feel are really good for a lot of things.  They give you kind of an air of professionalism.  They're really good at helping with branding so if you can just kind of stick your logo on there, give yourself a little intro, it's something that kind of ties all your videos together.  It's really good.


As much as audio is my thing, graphics are not my thing.  I'm not good at them.  It's not a good idea.  I don’t even go for the super high-end with the motion graphics.  I don’t use motion.  I don’t use after effects.  I use LiveType which is an Apple product, and it's super easy to learn.  It has a very easy learning curve and I was able to produce kind of something really quickly which I'll show you an example of that.

I use Soundtrack.  So here's our motion graphic.

[Video presentation]


So yes, that was all made with LiveType.  It's made in to tie in with a print publication so actually, that's where all the graphics came from.  They all kind of tie in together with that, so they worked together really well.

To give you an example of some other stuff, another video that our school kind of we outsource a lot of this but they do a much better job with the motion graphics than what we do, so.

[Video presentation]


So just to give you some idea, that video cost $45,000 to produce.  That's practically my salary.  I don't know about you guys.  So sometimes, yes, the powers that be will decide that they want to put the money into a high profile project.  This particular project is our orientation video.  We record all the students at their week-long orientation.  We edit it up really super quick and we show it to them at their official ceremony when they become students.  So that's how that works.  It's a really kind of impactful thing.


Just really quick some other ways to save money: The first thing you kind of want to consider is your video hosting.  We kind of started out with the whole Flash and SlideShowPro embedding the Flash into our site but we're actually moving towards the free thing such as YouTube.  So the advantages to that are: 1) it's free, 2) YouTube actually does a really good job with closed captioning which we kind of feel is very important.  And the cons obviously are that you're at the mercy of someone else's servers.  You're at the mercy of someone else's rules and they may change either of those at any time.  So you just kind of have to take a chance there and decide what you want to put our money into.

I included on the list some free and low-cost music places as well as a place to get some motion graphic templates.  Again, these things come with the software.  There's a lot of it that comes so if you're starting out, kind of go through that first but there are definitely options there.


Training, the truth is cheap web video may not be the fastest web video.  It took me a few years to learn all of this.  I got no formal training.  I personally learned more from books so my boss is like, hey, here's a book, have fun.  So that worked for me.  I know for a fact that doesn't work for everyone.  So I included some of the places that I'm familiar with online and that I've used.  Google will kind of be your friend if you're looking to learn this by yourself.

Does anyone have any questions or discussion on anything?  Yes?  We'll start here.  Yes?

Audience:  [40:45 Unintelligible]

Female:  Nice.  Oh, the education.  Yes, okay, wonderful.  What is it, Linda?

Audience:  [41:11 Unintelligible]

Female:  Everyone knows it but me.  Okay, I should have known.

Audience:  [41:15 Unintelligible]

Female:  Nice, wonderful.  Yes?

Audience:  [41:24 Unintelligible]


Female:  I generally when I'm using the Final Cut products, they only really export to QuickTime because it's an Apple product so they use the Apple type of movies.  That is definitely something to consider because once you start exporting and then you want to compress again and by the time you get it ready for this, you may have compressed it five times and at that point, it starts to look really bad and the sound gets all garbled.  So I try and stay with the QuickTime movies as much as possible.

The thing with YouTube and even Facebook now like they're starting to accept all sorts of kind of files so you can kind of use that, and they're accepting bigger and bigger files.  So yes, compression is a beast really.  Yes?

Audience:  [42:12 Unintelligible]


Female:  For those, I went back and forth between the three pieces of software.  In Final Cut, you can adjust the video but as far as I know, you can just really adjust the overall sound.  As far as the motion graphics went, I just would kind of go back and forth and move that piece here, so that just took time but it wasn't too bad.

Audience:  [42:41 Unintelligible]

Female:  Yes.  Final Cut is good because it kind of brings you beyond the free stuff that comes with the computer because Final Cut lets you edit in layers so you can have an infinite actually number, well, not infinite, but you can have many layers of video and many layers of audio and motion graphics and it all just kind of piles on one another, so it makes it very easy to kind of see.

We have one minute left, so any other questions?

Audience:  [43:06 Unintelligible]


Female:  We do.  Yes and no.  A lot of the projects we use it for are very specialized.  Yes, YouTube makes it very easy to kind of count but more than just the share number, we kind of like to look at where they came from, so is this forming a good relationship?  When we post a video on our online magazine, we can trace if people are clicking through so that tells us about our relationship with them and how we want to maintain that.  Yes, anyone else?  Yes?

Audience:  [43:53 Unintelligible]

Female:  Okay, for a full video of about three minutes long, it'll take me about a month, but that's just me working on it so if you have more than one person working on it, it'll cut that down.

Audience:  [44:17 Unintelligible]


Female:  The podcast actually takes me about four days.  Yes.  Okay, I think that's all the time we have.  So ask me questions any time.  I'll be around.  I have cards up here if you want one.  Ask me any questions if you want to kind of go back and decide you do want to do video.  Feel free to ask and I hope you guys check out the video thing tomorrow.  And thank you.